Endothelial cell stimulating angiogenesis factor.
ESAF activates the major pro-matrix metalloproteinases and also uniquely reactivates the complex of these active enzymes with their tissue inhibitors resulting in both active enzyme and inhibitor. These actions may be pivotal in its role as an angiogenic factor. ESAF is primarily involved in angiogenic conditions where inflammatory cells are not evident such as foetal bone growth and electrically stimulated skeletal muscles and proliferative retinopathy.
However, high levels also occur in actively growing human intracranial tumours but it is not noticeably elevated in rheumatoid arthritic synovial fluid. Its extreme potency and low molecular mass make its structural determination difficult. Possible therapeutic applications would be in the treatment of ischaemic ulcers, acceleration of fracture repair, infertility and more modestly in the correction of black nude hot guys. Analogues of ESAF could be of value in treating angiogenic diseases such as psoriasis and proliferative retinopathy.
Icariin promotes mouse hair follicle growth by increasing insulin-like growth factor 1 expression in dermal papillary cells. Icariin is a major flavonoid isolated from Epimedium spp. To investigate whether icariin can stimulate growth of hair follicles in mice and the underlying mechanism.
In vitro, the effect of icariin on hair growth was assessed by using a vibrissae hair follicle VHF organ-culture model.
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